Study on lessons learned from Afghanistan: Adaptive and comprehensive crisis management should be Finland’s goal
The operations carried out in Afghanistan between 2002 and 2021 were some of Finland's most demanding crisis management tasks. A new study examines the effectiveness of Finland’s crisis management operations in Afghanistan from various perspectives and presents recommendations on assessing the impact of comprehensive crisis management.
The aim of environmental policy in the transport sector is to plan and select measures that reduce emissions cost-effectively. However, there have not yet been established principles and tools in place for examining the cost impacts of the measures. In its work, the Holistic Economic Evaluation of Transport Emission Reduction Measures (HEETRA) project has developed models and principles for calculating the emissions and costs of passenger and freight traffic that can be used to comprehensively examine the cost impacts and cost-effectiveness of climate policy measures in the transport sector.
In future, the state will need to play a more active role in steering the economy. According to a study published on 26 April, short-term shocks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine, have required the active involvement of states to ensure the sustainability of their economies and societies.