Towards sustainable multi-locality

Multi-locality changes spatial structure

The spatial and temporal dimensions of multi-locality vary significantly. Thus in researching multi-locality, it is useful to focus on its different forms. The phenomenon occurs differently in different areas. Whereas leisure-related multi-locality occurs predominantly on the countryside, remote working is mainly an urban phenomenom. There is also notable seasonal variance in population in different areas.

Based on the forecasting models developed in the study, the multi-local population will shift even more towards Southern Finland in areas near the largest cities. Urbanisation persists, but the multi-local population spreads itself on a wider dwelling and labour market areas. Urbanisation and ageing of the population strengthen leisure-related multi-locality. When the multi-local population is considered, in addition to the permanent population, the picture of people’s mobility and service needs is modified. Hence it is important to account also for the multi-local population in planning.

Commuting is the most significant form of multi-locality in terms of economics. The effect is channelled through tax deductions on commuting. The positive effects are the largest in the commuter belt, where the increasing remote work reduces the tax deduction on commuting and increases the municipal tax income. Multi-locality transfers household consumption between regions seasonally, especially though the use of holiday homes.

The statistics and monitoring of multi-locality must be developed. The ecological sustainability of multi-locality can be promoted especially through supporting sustainable mobility and energy. The economic sustainability could be improved through the changed focus of tax deductions on commuting to long commutes and through taking into account the costs of leisure-related multi-locality in the municipalities where the holiday homes are located.